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Name: Marc Chagall

Born in: 1887

Country: Belarus

Style: Avant-garde




When Matisse dies, Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what color is... His canvases are really painted, not just tossed together. Some of the last things he's done in Vence convince me that there's never been anybody since Renoir who has the feeling for light that Chagall has.



The Art of Chagall is night art: he knows how to remember night dreams, but in the night dreams the present interwoven with the past

Ya. Tugenhold, art-critic



Marc Zakharovich Chagall (6 July [O.S. 24 June] 1887 – 28 March 1985) was a Belarussian-Russian-French artist. An early modernist, he was associated with several major artistic styles and created works in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints.


His father, Khatskl (Zachar) Shagal, was employed by a herring merchant, and his mother, Feige-Ite, sold groceries from their home. In 1906 Marc began taking private lessons with a realist painter M. Pan. In St. Petersburg, attended drawing school of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts ( 1906-09 ) , the studio SM Seidenberg and E. Zvantseva school , where his teachers were L. Bakst and M. Dobuzhinsky . In 1910-14 years lived in Paris in the artists' colony "Beehive" , made friends with G. Apollinaire , M. Jacob , A. Salmon , R. Delaunay and other avant-garde . In Paris, created the painting " Me and the Village " ( 1911), " Self-portrait with seven fingers ", " Fiddler " (both - 1912). In 1914, Berlin was successfully held the first exhibition of Chagall.


Back in Vitebsk at the beginning of World War I (1914), Chagall married (1915) on Bella Rosenfeld , daughter of a wealthy merchant of Vitebsk . Wife became the heroine of many of his paintings ("Double Portrait with a glass of wine ," 1917 ; " Above the City ", 1914-18 , "Birthday" , 1915-23 ) . October Revolution (1917) the artist accepted with enthusiasm. In 1918-19 he was a commissioner of Arts provincial education department in Vitebsk, decorated Vitebsk for revolutionary holidays. Constant disagreements with the local authorities forced the artist to move to Moscow .


In his works, Chagall created individual mythology within which Earth and Space, Paris and the Russian provinces existed in equilibrium. Characteristic landscapes provincial Vitebsk coexist in his paintings with symbols of Judaism ("Gate of the Jewish cemetery" 1917). Chagall creativity was autobiographical : childhood, family, death, deeply personal and at the same time eternal dominated in his early paintings. In Moscow, the artist painted a series of large wall panels for the Jewish Chamber Theater ( 1920-22 ) .


In 1922, Chagall moved to Berlin, where he published a memoir "My Life". From 1923 he lived in Paris, where he met with French publisher A. Vollard, who ordered the illustrations for "Dead Souls " by Nikolai Gogol (published in 1948) , "Fables " of La Fontaine (published in 1952) and the Bible (published in 1956) .


During World War II, Chagall and his family emigrated to the United States. Since 1941 he lived in New York (" Feathers and Flowers", 1943). In 1944, Chagall 's wife died, but her image still lived in the paintings ("Around her", "Wedding Candles", both - 1945 , "Nocturne", 1947). In 1948 he returned to France.


After the war, Chagall worked for the theater (design play Stravinsky's " Firebird" in New York , 1945; Ballet Ravel's "Daphnis and Chloe", 1958, " The Magic Flute " by Mozart at the Metropolitan Opera , 1967), has created some of the mosaics and stained glass windows for the Catholic church in Metz , and then for the synagogue at the medical center in Jerusalem; developed the glass facade of the UN in New York and decor project of auditorium of the Paris Opera. In 1977, a solo exhibition of the artist took place in the Louvre. In Haifa (1957) and Nice (since 1973), there are museums Chagall; opened in 1992, the house-museum of Chagall in Vitebsk.